"Thank you for signing up for the "Use of videos in medical education" workshop at CenMED, NUS. We strongly encourage you to complete the pre-workshop reading and assignment below before the workshop. This will give you background knowledge, and a foundation to build on during the workshop, and enable you to engage in the workshop discussion and interactive activities to a greater degree. The idea is to start to build a theoretical understanding before the workshop, to enable you to use your time in the workshop to clarify and reinforce basic concepts, and to develop further skill in thinking about, evaluating and making use videos in medical education.
Your participation in the workshop activities will embody and illustrate many of the ideas and educational principles underlying the flipped classroom practice. Specifically, you should plan to undertake approximately 3 hours of preparation at home before the workshop. We encourage you to begin you workshop preparation early. This will include reading the few recommended articles (see section below after the Padlet wall), summarising the take home points and posting this, together with a teaching project where you hope to use videos in medical education, on the workshop Padlet wall below, before the workshop (this is an interactive digital wall, which is on a private space on Padlet.com, and is not searchable on Google - you are able to write, edit and delete your own posts, without needing to login (by just double clicking or double tapping on the Padlet wall, or clicking the circled red + button bottom right of the Padlet wall), as long as you use the same mobile or desktop device; even though this platform works with all mobile and desktop devices, you will probably find using a laptop/workstation or tablet the easiest way to write and edit your posts on this website. You might also op to use initials, and omit specifying your institutional affiliation, in order to further anonymise your Padlet posts, as this workshop blog is available for open access).
By undertaking pre-workshop preparation, actively writing down your reflection on this pre-workshop preparation, as well as starting to think about and write down a draft proposal on how you intend or plan to use videos in your educational activities, and posting this on the Padlet wall before the workshop, will put you in a much better position to take advantage of the activities during the workshop to add to your thinking, and develop your educational plans and proposals further during, and after the workshop. There is also a better opportunity for specific feedback to be given to you.
Please bring along to the workshop the same WiFi enabled mobile device, tablet or laptop that you have used to post on the Padlet wall. This will enable you to continue to refine, and add to your post on the Padlet wall. I have organised the Padlet posts so that the latest entry is always at the top. This will enable you to find your earlier post by scrolling down. You can interact with the Padlet website directly on the blog, or by going to the Padlet link immediately below the embedded Padlet webpage below.
May we also request that you complete the short anonymised Survey Monkey survey embedded on the blog below, before the workshop, to give us an idea of your teaching background and what you hope to get out of the workshop."
Create your own user feedback survey
(you can choose to post directly on the embedded Padlet wall, or open the Padlet wall as a separate website by clicking on the link above)
Pre-reading and pre-workshop assignment:
To Play or Not To Play: Leveraging Video in Medical Education (J Grad Med Educ, 2013)
Use of online clinical videos for clinical skills training for medical students: benefits and challenges (BMC Medical Education, 2014)
(Please read [above] the articles above on using videos in medical education. Please write a short 250 word maximum personal reaction, and post this on the Padlet wall above, together with a brief description of your teaching experience, current teaching responsibilities, and a short 250 word maximum proposal of how you intend to use videos in your teaching setting. You should complete this assignment before you come to the workshop. We will be developing your proposal further during the workshop.
Please feel free to explore the other online resources on this workshop blog. This blog will be the main platform for presenting and reviewing the educational content we will be covering during the workshop.)
as an exercise, compare viewing the video above, with reading the transcript
then consider what might be the "best" way to blend or combine video with a transcript, with traditional "teaching"
Google search of " How to best use video in medical education "
Google search of " How to produce videos for medical education "
- Effective eduational videos (Centre for Teaching,Vanderbilt University)
- Engaging Video Presentations: Creating videos to present information, such as the delivery of a "flipped video," that are well–designed and engaging… (Weill Cornell Medical College )
- http://evolllution.com/opinions/medical-moocs-lessons-learned-trenches-medical-education/ (Leonard White | Director of Education for the Duke Institute for Brain Sciences, Duke University)
Narrated text of workshop presentation:
Welcome to all of you, and thank you for signing up for this Use of Videos in Medical Education workshop organised by CenMED.
My name is Poh Sun, and may I also introduce my fellow faculty, Terry.
To start, can I ask all of you to recall, and reflect on the engagement process undertaken by CenMED, starting from the email all of you received, the reminder emails, sharing with all of you the workshop blog, which incorporates instructions for pre-workshop reading, a pre-workshop assignment and an embedded online bulletin board or Padlet wall for you to post, and share your reflections on the pre-reading, and your educational background and educational setting.
May I ask those of you who were able to both do the pre-reading and post on the Padlet wall to raise your hands? Did you have any difficulty with either task?
How many of you were able to do some or all of the pre-reading, but did not post on the Padlet wall?
Could some of you share why was this so?
For those of you who were not able to do the pre-reading, could you share with us why your were not able to do so?
Let's now examine some of the key ideas related to using videos in medical education.
Can I invite those of you who have done the pre-reading to share with us why you feel that videos should be used in medical education?
1. Why should one consider using videos in medical education?
What do we teach with? Why do we teach?
What do we hope our students learn? Know and are are able to do?
- telling → illustrating - showing, demonstrating → practice with feedback
(words → pictures → video)
"The impact of visual representation on recall and retention of taught material has been demonstrated. One study of teaching methods found that telling alone, showing material visually alone, and combined telling and showing each resulted in 70% or greater recall at 3 hours (85% for combined). However, retention 3 days later was 10% for telling alone and 20% for showing alone, compared with 65% retention for combined telling and showing."
Dwyer FM. Strategies for Improving Visual Learning. State College, Pa: Learning Services; 1978. pp. 1–20.
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Practical Use of Videotape in Teaching
Linda E Pinsky and Joyce E Wipf
Below from Google search for
"Using videos to teach"
"It is important not to fall into the trap of considering that the use of technology or media is going to be the “silver bullet” that will make students learn or be more motivated. The learning activities that students perform with videos are a critical part of the learning outcomes and motivations (Boyle, 1997). That is, simply presenting information in a stimulating digital video format will not automatically nor necessarily lead to in-depth learning (Karppinen, 2005). Rather it is the pedagogy, the well crafted message, the whole approach, and design that are the critical elements, not the media".
above quote from website below
Applying the science of learning to medical education
Richard E Mayer
MEDICAL EDUCATION 2010; 44: 543–549
"In this paper, we discuss creative applications of videotapes in three major categories: presenting information, triggering discussion, and as a tool for direct self-observation and feedback."
A Picture is Worth a Thousand Words: Practical Use of Videotape in Teaching
Linda E Pinsky and Joyce E Wipf
J Gen Intern Medv.15(11); 2000 NovPMC1495618
"On the shift toward video, Mendelsohn said: “The best way to tell stories in this world— where so much information is coming at us—actually is video. It commands so much information in a much quicker period so actually the trend helps us digest more of the information in a quicker way."
2. How could one start to do use videos?
What are some of the key tips and ideas one should be aware of?
3. How could you blend videos with your current teaching?
e.g. the purpose of this video ..... (provide link) .... is to illustrate, or to demonstrate the following .... for the following purpose ...... before or during class ..... in order for the students to understand / to know how to / to start a discussion on ......
4. As you go through this workshop, please take notes, refine your educational project, and post this on the Padlet wall elaborating on your original pre-workshop post further
At the end of the workshop, soon after the workshop - please go back to your original Padlet post, and
1. Write down the key messages/ideas that you feel resonate with you, and that you might find useful
2. Write down why you feel these messages and ideas might be helpful in your educational setting
3. Write down how you intend to use/apply these ideas
(What you take away from an educational session, what you are able to recall, and apply is ultimately an indicator of successful individual learning).
Take Home Points:
1. Use existing videos available online - curate and index useful videos, to improve access /accessibility
2. Work with professional videographers and instructional designers (existing institutional)
3. Observe best practices, and incorporate these into your own practice
4. Try out, experiment, get feedback, gather evidence, reflect on practice
5. Start slowly, and progressively and cumulatively gain experience, expertise and confidence
6. Always consider your learning objectives, and apply best practices in instructional design and educational pedagogy
(eLearning, eRepositories and eScholarship)
"Based on these ideas, it is possible to sketch in a few thoughts about what teachers need to do to support learning. They have to make sure that the point of the learning is clearly communicated to everybody involved and that there is shared understanding of what it means to get there. Educators need to watch for the actions that show that people are starting to move toward the aims of the learning and support those actions. Learners need to have material structured in a continuum from easier ideas and actions toward more challenging ones, so when they have mastered simpler processes they can tackle the more complex ones that build on them (this is referred to as “scaffolding”). The drive in learning is toward understanding and mastery, meaning that educators have to ensure that learners finish the course feeling that they have achieved these two elements.
In the introduction I suggested that responsible teaching recognized the following principles:
Encourage active learning. People need to learn by doing wherever possible, rather than simply hearing or reading about how to do.
Allow people to have some control over their own learning.
Build connections between what is being learned and the experiences of learners, moving over time toward more complex ideas.
Encourage collaboration and conversation between learners."
above from blog post below
https://tomprof.stanford.edu/posting/1495 (how do people learn)
7. Ultimately, our aim is to blend and combine video with other instructional formats, to give our students choices, to move from a teacher centric to learner centric paradigm.
(table below from earlier working draft of above article)
(useful resources and how to do it tips from CDTL, NUS)
Pre-workshop SurveyMonkey responses: